Lesson 2: Pate a choux (paht ah shoo)
Literally translated it means cabbage paste. Sounds delicious doesn’t it?
Also known as choux, it is the crispy and slightly eggy pastry that plays a supporting role in all kinds of deliciousness.
I tell the kids the reason I want to teach them how to make it is because it is very versatile. Like the brick in their lego sets, you can create lots of different things with it…cream filled puffs and eclairs, sugar topped or stuffed with ice cream and bathed in chocolate sauce; but it can also be piped and fried to make French crullers or beignets; made savory by adding cheese to make gougeres, or even boiled like dumplings to make Gnocchi Parisienne.
Fancy fancy, right? I think mostly they hear “blah blah sugar, blah blah chocolate, blah blah ice cream.”
They will thank me later when they are in college and all they have in the apartment is a bit of flour, some eggs, and a lonely stick of butter.
So to the recipe we turn. We quickly gather our mis en place and get down to business.
We discuss why it’s important to measure liquid ingredients in a liquid measuring cup rather than a dry measuring cup…”because it will spill!”, and why you should always get down to eye level to measure the liquids accurately…”it looks like there’s too much!” from above.
Then, a reminder of what the different measuring spoons mean…”1/4 means that four of these go into one of these.”
And butter…”1/2 cup is always one stick, so if your recipe calls for 1 cup of butter you need what?”, “2!”
The water, milk, sugar, salt and butter all get dumped in the pot.
Then we get a bit messy with the flour.
This recipe calls for 1 cup, sifted, (which means measured first, then sifted). I wanted to show them that the best way to measure flour is not by scooping it with the measuring cup, (as most people do), but by placing the empty measuring cup down, then using another utensil to lightly fluff and lift out the flour, and add it to the waiting cup. Finally, without tamping it down, just level it off with the straight edge of a knife, spoon, etc.
The theory is that no two people scoop with the same force and therefore, by measuring the first way, more often than not you will end up with more than the recipe requires.
So I whip out my digital scale and ask one of the children to measure a cup of flour by the usual method. Then I measure mine by this way more accurate method. We weigh them, and…lo and behold they are exactly the same!
Ok! So everybody is scooping and weighing and the kids are digging the scale and we have flour everywhere and nobody else comes up with exactly the same amount.
Aha! I. am. vindicated.
Back to it then.
We sift to remove lumps. Don’t skip this step!
Then the kids take turns cracking the eggs into a pitcher.
Only after all our ingredients are measured do we turn to the stove. The contents of the pot are brought to a full boil and then, off the heat, we add the flour all at once, and stir rapidly with a wooden spoon.
“It looks like mashed potatoes!”
It’s just like making play dough.
Everything goes back on the heat and cooked for another few minutes. The pate a choux should be stirred until it comes away from the sides of the pot and forms a smooth, shiny mass, leaving a bit of film on the bottom of the pot.
What’s happening in there anyway?
I remind the kids that in our last lesson we kneaded our dough to activate and strengthen the gluten that provides the elastic structure needed to capture the carbon dioxide expelled by the yeast. Think of it as an expanding balloon. Without that strong but stretchy exterior, the gas would just break through the dough and leave you with flat and heavy bread.
We are basically doing the same thing here, minus the yeast. But, if we aren’t using yeast as leavening, what are we using to fill our “balloon”?
“What do you get when you heat water on the stove?”, I ask. “Steam!”
This is where the eggs come in. We dry the choux paste out on the stove so we can incorporate as many eggs as possible. Not only will the protein from the eggs provide additional strength to the pastry, but when placed in a hot oven, the moisture from the eggs will create a burst of steam, resulting in a nice lofty puff.
Once the choux paste is sufficiently cooked on the stove, it should be transferred immediately to a bowl to cool for a few minutes. The butter will seep out if left to sit in the hot pot.
Now comes the bicep workout. This step could be done in a mixer with a paddle attachment, but I wanted the kids to be able to see the transformation of the pate a choux. Also, I’m always looking for ways to wear them out.
They take turns adding the eggs, one at a time, mixing each in completely before introducing the next.
It sloshes around a bit, looks a bit, um, slimey, and gets a little more difficult with each addition, but eventually turns into a thick and supple mixture that forms a little peak when pulled up by the spoon.
Now we are ready to form the puffs.
The pate a choux gets scooped into a pastry bag and piped onto a parchment lined sheet pan. (You could also use a heavy duty freezer bag with the corner cut off, or even dropped by the spoonful. They won’t look as pretty but they’ll taste just as good.)
In order to help the kids pipe the choux puffs as close to the same size as possible, (they would finish baking at uneven times otherwise), I traced 1 1/2″ circles onto the backside of the parchment. To keep the paper from sliding around, we “glue” it down with a little dab of choux paste between the parchment and pan in each corner.
It’s important to pipe as straight up as possible as the choux will want to expand in the direction it’s piped.
I show them how to twist the bag at the level of the pate a choux, place that twist in the crook of their hand and apply pressure to the bag from there, not in the middle of the bag or risk choux paste coming out the top and bottom.
Then it’s just a continuous squeeze until the circle is nearly full and when it’s time to stop piping, a little swoosh of the tip in a “c” shape to break the tip away from the puff. It also helps if you make a little “whoop” sound.
Any “tails” or extra pointy parts are smoothed over with a slightly damp fingertip.
A little time in a hot oven, and voila!
We rip one apart and see that there is a big space where the steam caused the choux to puff up and then baked off.
The puffs need to cool for about 10 minutes before we fill them and dig in!
So does it look like a little cabbage?
Pate a choux
1/2 c water
1/2 c milk
1/4 tsp salt
1 tsp sugar
1/2 c unsalted butter, cut into pieces
1 c flour, sifted
5 large eggs
Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.
In a heavy saucepan, combine the milk, water, salt, sugar and butter and place over medium heat until the butter melts and the mixture comes to a full boil. Add the flour all at once, stirring vigorously with a wooden spoon. Keep stirring over medium heat until the mixture has formed a smooth mass and pulls away from the sides of the pan, about 3 – 5 minutes. A light film should form on the bottom of the pan, do not scrape it up.
Transfer to a heatproof mixing bowl or the bowl of a standing mixer and let sit for 5 minutes. Add the eggs one at a time and mix completely before adding the next. (Use the paddle attachment for a standing mixer). When all the eggs have been added, the mixture will be thick, smooth and shiny.
Transfer the choux paste to a pastry bag fitted with a ½ inch tip, adding only as much to the bag as is comfortable to work with. Pipe out rounds of pate a choux, spacing about 2 inches apart. Smooth over any “tails” with a damp fingertip.
Bake until puffed and starting to show some color, about 10 minutes. Reduce oven temperature to 375 degrees and continue to bake until the shells feel light for their size, about 12 minutes longer. They should be nicely browned and a skewer should come out clean. Remove from the oven and use the tip of a knife to poke a small hole in each to allow steam to escape. Cool completely before filling.
Makes about 30 medium size puffs
A note on filling:
You can split the puffs in half for easy filling or poke a hole in them and fill with the help of a piping bag, like so…
You can fill the puffs with whatever strikes your fancy, classically it’s a combination of whipped cream and pastry cream. If you decide to go that route you’ll need about 4 cups total in order to fill all the choux puffs.
I figure I can incorporate a lesson on pastry cream into the next baking series, in custards, or even an “amazing egg” sort of unit. That could be fun.